Gabapentin is an anticonvulsive medication which first discovered in the 1970s in Japan.
Its original use was as a muscle relaxer and anti-spasmodic medication, but later, it was discovered the potential of the medication as anticonvulsive medication and as an adjunct to stronger anticonvulsants.
Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant medication that got FDA approval for partial seizure therapy in 1993. Currently, gabapentin has FDA approval for:
Adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures with or without secondary generalization in patients over the age of 12 years old with epilepsy, and the pediatric population, 3 to 12 year-olds with a partial seizure
Moderate to severe restless leg syndrome (RLS) moderate to severe
It also has off-label use for neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, bipolar disorder, postmenopausal hot flashes, essential tremors, anxiety, resistant depressant and mood disorders, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), alcohol withdrawal, postoperative analgesia, nausea and vomiting, migraine prophylaxis, headache, interstitial cystitis, painful diabetic neuropathy, social phobia, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, pruritus (itching), insomnia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and refractory chronic cough.
In one placebo-controlled, retrospective study that investigated the effects of gabapentin on about 700 patients with refractory partial seizure disorder, there was an improvement in overall well-being in patients. The effect prompted a controlled investigation of the drug in primary psychiatric conditions.
An important benefit of gabapentin is that there is no interaction with valproate, lithium, and carbamazepine. Also, gabapentin has minor side effects.
Gabapentin in the Treatment of Anxiety and Depression
Gabapentin is rarely prescribed for patients with only anxiety disorder but is commonly prescribed for patients with bipolar disorder to reduce anxiety levels. Clinicians can also use it for patients who have anxiety and depression. Since anxiety is a coping skill, there is no drug to treat anxiety, but the medications used for this purpose make it possible to live at the moment, giving patients a chance to undergo anxiety treatment with non-pharmaceuticals. Even though the studies show that gabapentin is ineffective in the treatment of bipolar disorder, a case-control study with 60 patients in an acute phase of mania had a significant reduction in symptoms of anxiety with lithium and 900 mg of gabapentin. In another study with 21, mixed-state patients refractory to mood stabilizers received gabapentin (up to 2000 mg per day) for eight weeks, and patients with depressive symptoms had significant improvement in their CGI-BP (Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar) scores.
A meta-analysis of 7 trials pointed to gabapentin’s greater efficacy versus placebo in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), although the effect size was approximately 0.35 for mental anxiety symptoms. A study of 153 patients who responded to the initial treatment of 450 mg per day for maintenance treatment of social anxiety disorder.
There are no clinical studies on the effectiveness of gabapentin as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in major depressive disorders. However, there are case reviews that show some patients with depression who are refractory to standard antidepressants but showed therapeutic improvement when using gabapentin as adjunctive therapy.
In a randomized, double-blind study, with 130 patients that had under eye surgery, a one-time dose of 600 mg gabapentin significantly reduced the perioperative anxiety compared to a placebo. However, there was no significant difference compared to melatonin.
Cannabidiol is a popular natural remedy used for many common ailments.
Better known as CBD, it is one of over 100 chemical compounds known as cannabinoids found in the cannabis or marijuana plant, Cannabis sativa .
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis, and causes the sensation of getting “high” that’s often associated with marijuana. However, unlike THC, CBD is not psychoactive.
This quality makes CBD an appealing option for those who are looking for relief from pain and other symptoms without the mind-altering effects of marijuana or certain pharmaceutical drugs.
CBD oil is made by extracting CBD from the cannabis plant, then diluting it with a carrier oil like coconut or hemp seed oil.
It’s gaining momentum in the health and wellness world, with some scientific studies confirming it may ease symptoms of ailments like chronic pain and anxiety.
With more research discovering new potential wellness and therapeutic applications for cannabidiol (CBD), the demand and availability of CBD products continues to increase. The greater variety of products gives patients more choices to find a CBD option and method of consumption that aligns with their health and lifestyle needs.
In general, there are four primary methods for taking CBD oil to choose from:
Here we explore each of those four methods and discuss the advantages of each so that you can select a product that’s best for you or your family member.
Perhaps the most common way to take CBD oil is to ingest it orally. When you ingest CBD oil, it passes through the digestive system and is metabolized by the liver, eventually sending its active compounds to your bloodstream. This form of administration is exactly how vitamins and other daily supplements are most typically taken.
Common ingestible CBD oil products include capsules, edibles, and beverages. Capsules can be easily swished down with a mouthful of water and are among the most efficient ways to take CBD. CBD oil can be infused into a wide variety of edibles and beverages, including coffee.
When CBD oil is administered sublingually, it’s held under the tongue for up to 90 seconds so that the mucus membranes in the mouth can absorb the oil’s active ingredients. The benefit of consuming CBD oil sublingually is that the absorption process bypasses the digestive system and liver metabolization, allowing the compounds to reach your bloodstream and interact with the endocannabinoid system more quickly. For those looking for quick effects, a sublingual CBD oil product is ideal.
Pure CBD oil, as well as tinctures and concentrates, are CBD products that are designed for the sublingual method of application. They can easily be held in the mouth to give the active ingredients time to be absorbed by the capillaries in the mouth before being swallowed.
Some CBD oil products are designed to be applied directly onto the skin. The active ingredients in these topical CBD products are absorbed through the skin so that they can interact with cells that are nearby the surface without ever entering the bloodstream. Topical CBD oil products are ideal for those looking for isolated pain relief or to address skin conditions because they can be applied directly to where they are needed most.
The CBD oil topical products currently on the market primarily include lotions and salves. These products are more applicable for potentially addressing pain or serious skin issues. For daily skin health care, some companies also produce a collection of CBD oil bath and body care products, such as body wash, shampoo, conditioner, and moisturizing lotions.
Finally, CBD can also be inhaled by vaporizing. A vaporizer heats CBD oil just enough to release its active compounds, avoiding the harmful byproducts that are created with combustion. During vaporization, CBD enters your lungs and diffuses directly into your bloodstream. Because it doesn’t have to make its way through the digestive system or liver, the CBD enters your circulation faster. Also, less CBD is lost during vaporizing compared to the ingestion method. Vaporizing CBD is typically a consumption option recommended for adults.
CBD oil products designed for vaporization include CBD e-liquid, which contains CBD oil infused with vegetable glycerin (VG), or high-CBD concentrate. Vaporizers range in size from tabletop, plug-in powered units to small, battery-powered portable pens.
Here are seven health benefits of CBD oil that are backed by scientific evidence.
1. Can Relieve Pain
Marijuana has been used to treat pain as far back as 2900 B.C. (2Trusted Source).
More recently, scientists have discovered that certain components of marijuana, including CBD, are responsible for its pain-relieving effects.
The human body contains a specialized system called the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in regulating a variety of functions including sleep, appetite, pain and immune system response (3Trusted Source).
The body produces endocannabinoids, which are neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors in your nervous system.
Studies have shown that CBD may help reduce chronic pain by impacting endocannabinoid receptor activity, reducing inflammation and interacting with neurotransmitters (4Trusted Source).
For example, one study in rats found that CBD injections reduced pain response to surgical incision, while another rat study found that oral CBD treatment significantly reduced sciatic nerve pain and inflammation (5Trusted Source, 6Trusted Source).
Several human studies have found that a combination of CBD and THC is effective in treating pain related to multiple sclerosis and arthritis.
An oral spray called Sativex, which is a combination of THC and CBD, is approved in several countries to treat pain related to multiple sclerosis.
One study of 47 people with multiple sclerosis examined the effects of taking Sativex for one month. The participants experienced improvements in pain, walking, and muscle spasms. Still, the study didn’t include any control group and placebo effects cannot be ruled out (7Trusted Source).
Another study found that Sativex significantly improved pain during movement, pain at rest and sleep quality in 58 people with rheumatoid arthritis (8Trusted Source).
CBD, especially in combination with THC, may be effective in reducing pain associated with diseases like multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Could Reduce Anxiety and Depression
Anxiety and depression are common mental health disorders that can have devastating impacts on health and well-being.
According to the World Health Organization, depression is the single largest contributor to disability worldwide, while anxiety disorders are ranked sixth (9).
Anxiety and depression are usually treated with pharmaceutical drugs, which can cause a number of side effects including drowsiness, agitation, insomnia, sexual dysfunction and headache (10Trusted Source).
What’s more, medications like benzodiazepines can be addictive and may lead to substance abuse (11Trusted Source).
CBD oil has shown promise as a treatment for both depression and anxiety, leading many who live with these disorders to become interested in this natural approach.
In one Brazilian study, 57 men received either oral CBD or a placebo 90 minutes before they underwent a simulated public speaking test. The researchers found that a 300-mg dose of CBD was the most effective at significantly reducing anxiety during the test.
The placebo, a 150-mg dose of CBD, and a 600-mg dose of CBD had little to no effect on anxiety (12Trusted Source).
CBD oil has even been used to safely treat insomnia and anxiety in children with post-traumatic stress disorder (13Trusted Source).
CBD has also shown antidepressant-like effects in several animal studies (14Trusted Source, 15Trusted Source).
These qualities are linked to CBD’s ability to act on the brain’s receptors for serotonin, a neurotransmitter that regulates mood and social behavior.
Using CBD has been shown to reduce anxiety and depression in both human and animal studies.
3. Can Alleviate Cancer-Related Symptoms
CBD may help reduce symptoms related to cancer and side effects related to cancer treatment, like nausea, vomiting and pain.
One study looked at the effects of CBD and THC in 177 people with cancer-related pain who did not experience relief from pain medication.
Those treated with an extract containing both compounds experienced a significant reduction in pain compared to those who received only THC extract (16Trusted Source).
CBD may also help reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, which are among the most common chemotherapy-related side effects for those with cancer (17Trusted Source).
Though there are drugs that help with these distressing symptoms, they are sometimes ineffective, leading some people to seek alternatives.
A study of 16 people undergoing chemotherapy found that a one-to-one combination of CBD and THC administered via mouth spray reduced chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting better than standard treatment alone (18Trusted Source).
Some test-tube and animal studies have even shown that CBD may have anticancer properties. For example, one test-tube study found that concentrated CBD induced cell death in human breast cancer cells (19Trusted Source).
Another study showed that CBD inhibited the spread of aggressive breast cancer cells in mice (20Trusted Source).
However, these are test-tube and animal studies, so they can only suggest what might work in people. More studies in humans are needed before conclusions can be made.
Though CBD has been shown to help reduce symptoms related to cancer and cancer treatment, and may even have cancer-fighting properties, more research is needed to assess its efficacy and safety.
4. May Reduce Acne
Acne is a common skin condition that affects more than 9% of the population (21Trusted Source).
It is thought to be caused by a number of factors, including genetics, bacteria, underlying inflammation and the overproduction of sebum, an oily secretion made by sebaceous glands in the skin (22Trusted Source, 23).
Based on recent scientific studies, CBD oil may help treat acne due to its anti-inflammatory properties and ability to reduce sebum production.
One test-tube study found that CBD oil prevented sebaceous gland cells from secreting excessive sebum, exerted anti-inflammatory actions and prevented the activation of “pro-acne” agents like inflammatory cytokines (24Trusted Source).
Another study had similar findings, concluding that CBD may be an efficient and safe way to treat acne, thanks in part to its remarkable anti-inflammatory qualities (25Trusted Source).
Though these results are promising, human studies exploring the effects of CBD on acne are needed.
CBD may have beneficial effects on acne due to its anti-inflammatory qualities and its ability to control the overproduction of sebum from the sebaceous glands.
5. Might Have Neuroprotective Properties
Researchers believe that CBD’s ability to act on the endocannabinoid system and other brain signaling systems may provide benefits for those with neurological disorders.
In fact, one of the most studied uses for CBD is in treating neurological disorders like epilepsy and multiple sclerosis. Though research in this area is still relatively new, several studies have shown promising results.
Sativex, an oral spray consisting of CBD and THC, has been proven to be a safe and effective way to reduce muscle spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis.
One study found that Sativex reduced spasms in 75% of 276 people with multiple sclerosis who were experiencing muscle spasticity that was resistant to medications (26Trusted Source).
Another study gave 214 people with severe epilepsy 0.9–2.3 grams of CBD oil per pound (2–5 g/kg) of body weight. Their seizures reduced by a median of 36.5% (27Trusted Source).
One more study found that CBD oil significantly reduced seizure activity in children with Dravet syndrome, a complex childhood epilepsy disorder, compared to a placebo (28Trusted Source).
However, it’s important to note that some people in both these studies experienced adverse reactions associated with CBD treatment, such as convulsions, fever and fatigue.
CBD has also been researched for its potential effectiveness in treating several other neurological diseases.
For example, several studies have shown that treatment with CBD improved quality of life and sleep quality for people with Parkinson’s disease (29Trusted Source, 30Trusted Source).
Additionally, animal and test-tube studies have shown that CBD may decrease inflammation and help prevent the neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer’s disease (31Trusted Source).
In one long-term study, researchers gave CBD to mice genetically predisposed to Alzheimer’s disease, finding that it helped prevent cognitive decline (32Trusted Source).
Though research is limited at this time, CBD has been shown to ease symptoms related to epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. CBD was also shown to reduce the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in test-tube and animal studies.
6. Could Benefit Heart Health
Recent research has linked CBD with several benefits for the heart and circulatory system, including the ability to lower high blood pressure.
High blood pressure is linked to higher risks of a number of health conditions, including stroke, heart attack and metabolic syndrome (33Trusted Source).
Studies indicate that CBD may be able to help with high blood pressure.
One recent study treated nine healthy men with one dose of 600 mg of CBD oil and found it reduced resting blood pressure, compared to a placebo.
The same study also gave the men stress tests that normally increase blood pressure. Interestingly, the single dose of CBD led the men to experience a smaller blood pressure increase than normal in response to these tests (34Trusted Source).
Researchers have suggested that the stress- and anxiety-reducing properties of CBD are responsible for its ability to help lower blood pressure.
Additionally, several animal studies have demonstrated that CBD may help reduce the inflammation and cell death associated with heart disease due to its powerful antioxidant and stress-reducing properties.
For example, one study found that treatment with CBD reduced oxidative stress and prevented heart damage in diabetic mice with heart disease.
Though more human studies are needed, CBD may benefit heart health in several ways, including by reducing blood pressure and preventing heart damage.
7. Several Other Potential Benefits
CBD has been studied for its role in treating a number of health issues other than those outlined above.
Though more studies are needed, CBD is thought to provide the following health benefits:
Antipsychotic effects: Studies suggest that CBD may help people with schizophrenia and other mental disorders by reducing psychotic symptoms .
Substance abuse treatment: CBD has been shown to modify circuits in the brain related to drug addiction. In rats, CBD has been shown to reduce morphine dependence and heroin-seeking behavior .
Anti-tumor effects: In test-tube and animal studies, CBD has demonstrated anti-tumor effects. In animals, it has been shown to prevent the spread of breast, prostate, brain, colon and lung cancer .
Diabetes prevention: In diabetic mice, treatment with CBD reduced the incidence of diabetes by 56% and significantly reduced inflammation .
What is the legal status (and evidence) of CBD oil?
Cannabidiol or CBD is a naturally occurring component of cannabis. It is extracted from the cannabis plant and often made into an oil for use. CBD is not psychoactive, and does not produce the ‘high’ of THC (tetrahyrocannabinol), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. CBD is legal in Canada and has been used in the treatment of various medical conditions.
All cannabinoids, including CBD, produce effects in the body by attaching to certain receptors in the brain or immune system. The human body also produces its own cannabinoids. It seems that CBD does not attach directly to receptors. Instead, it directs the body to use more of its own cannabinoids to produce the therapeutic effects associated with CBD.
Research suggests that CBD may provide relief for chronic pain. Sativex is a proprietary medication that combines THC and CBD and may be prescribed for the relief of pain associated with multiple sclerosis. There is also some evidence suggesting that CBD may be a promising support for people with opioid use disorders. The researchers noted that CBD reduced some symptoms associated with substance use disorders including anxiety, mood-related symptoms, pain, and insomnia.
After researching the safety and effectiveness of CBD oil for treating epilepsy, in 2018, the United States FDA approved CBD (Epidiolex) as a therapy for two rare conditions characterized by epileptic seizures. Other evidence suggests that CBD may be useful in the treatment of schizophrenia, though further research is needed before introducing CBD into medical practice.
There is some initial evidence that CBD may help people in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease keep the ability to recognize the faces of people that they know, and thus slow progression of the illness. Again, more research is needed in this area.
Because of the way cannabis and its products are metabolized, scientists believe there is a potential for interaction with other drugs, although nothing significant has yet been recorded. CBD has been found to be generally safe. Reports from patients indicate that negative drug interactions are not common. As with any other treatment, it is important to monitor your use of CBD and seek assistance if you experience any problems or have questions or concerns about its use.
What is the side effects of CBD oil ?
CBD use also carries some risks. Though it’s often well-tolerated, CBD can cause side effects, such as dry mouth, diarrhea, reduced appetite, drowsiness and fatigue. CBD can also interact with other medications you’re taking, such as blood thinners.
Another cause for concern is the unreliability of the purity and dosage of CBD in products. A recent study of 84 CBD products bought online showed that more than a quarter of the products contained less CBD than labeled. In addition, THC was found in 18 products.
Clinical trials give patients high-quality, safe products which contain a reliable quantity of CBD. The Epidiolex side effects are ones you might expect from a high dose of a very pure product. On the other hand, because the supplement industry in the US isn’t heavily regulated, if you purchase CBD from dishonest or potentially unsafe manufacturers, you might experience very different side effects. In fact, when scientists recently tested a variety of publicly-available CBD products, only 31% were accurately labeled.
What can these unreliable products contain?
Pesticides and heavy metals from bad farming practices
High levels of THC (more than desired)
Any kind of contaminants (mold, bacteria, rancidity, etc)
Sometimes CBD products don’t contain any CBD at all — in which case you won’t experience any effects, positive or negative.
True CBD products are prepared from hemp plants, which can contain trace quantities of THC unless that’s removed during extraction. If a product contains high levels of THC, you might experience side effects like dry mouth, hunger, or altered mood and thinking.
Although it’s hard to imagine all the different side effects you might experience from contaminated or synthetic products, the worst effects of dishonest CBD products could be long-term damage to your body that you won’t immediately experience as a side effect.
If you’re suspicious about the safety of your current CBD products, do yourself a favor and throw them away. CBD oil is a concentrated plant-based extract that goes into your body — expect its quality to be at least as high as the foods you eat.